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Cambridge University Press. ^ Anderson, Greg (2005). ^ Mechanical Theory of Heat Nine Memoirs on the development of concept of "Entropy" by Rudolf Clausius [18501865] ^ a b c d Microsoft Encarta 2006. Robert Feustel. R., (Department of Educational and Professional Studies, Kings College, London), 2002, "Undergraduate students' understandings of entropy and Gibbs Free energy," University Chemistry Education - 2002 Papers, Royal Society of Chemistry. Locally, the entropy can be lowered by external action.

In the 2002 encyclopedia Encarta, for example, entropy is defined as a thermodynamic property which serves as a measure of how close a system is to equilibrium, as well as a measure of the disorder in the system. In the quest for ultra-cold temperatures, a temperature lowering technique called adiabatic demagnetization is used, where atomic entropy considerations are utilized which can be described in order-disorder terms.[18] In this process, a sample of solid such as chrome-alum salt, whose molecules are equivalent to tiny magnets, is inside an insulated enclosure cooled to a low temperature, typically 2 or 4 kelvins, with a strong magnetic field being applied to the container using a powerful external magnet, so that the tiny molecular magnets are aligned forming a well-ordered "initial" state at that low temperature. In the years to follow, Ludwig Boltzmann translated these "alterations" into that of a probabilistic view of order and disorder in gas phase molecular systems. Thus, if entropy is associated with disorder and if the entropy of the universe is headed towards maximal entropy, then many are often puzzled as to the nature of the "ordering" process and operation of evolution in relation to Clausius' most famous version of the second law, which states that the universe is headed towards maximal disorder. The relationship between entropy, order, and disorder in the Boltzmann equation is so clear among physicists that according to the views of thermodynamic ecologists Sven Jorgensen and Yuri Svirezhev, it is obvious that entropy is a measure of order or, most likely, disorder in the system.[13] In this direction, the second law of thermodynamics, as famously enunciated by Rudolf Clausius in 1865, states that:. Abstract Entropy has been used as measure of disorder in several ways. ∫ δ Q T ≥ 0 {displaystyle int {frac {delta Q}{T}}geq 0} where Q = . the Emerging Science of Spontaneous Order. Boltzmann's molecules (1896) shown at a "rest position" in a solid . This local decrease in entropy is, however, only possible at the expense of an entropy increase in the surroundings.

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